India UN Security Council Reforms

Yet Another Wasted Opportunity: India Over Delay In UN Security Council Reforms

Terming the UN General Assembly’s decision to roll over the Inter-Governmental Negotiations on Security Council reform to its next session as “yet another wasted opportunity,” India on Thursday (local time) said that the state of affairs is clearly in the interest of those who seek a status quo to keep this process frozen in repetitive cycles.

India’s permanent representative to the UN, Ruchira Kamboj at the 77th session of the UN General Assembly said that the rollover decision of the intergovernmental negotiations simply cannot be reduced to a mindless technical exercise.
The UN General Assembly on Thursday adopted a draft oral decision to continue the intergovernmental negotiations on Security Council reform at the 78th session of the UN General Assembly that will commence in September. The rollover decision marked the end of the IGN for the current 77th session.

“We have been consistent in our position that the rollover decision of the intergovernmental negotiations simply cannot be reduced to a mindless technical exercise… We were therefore encouraged by your efforts to introduce in the decision a small reflection of this evolution based on your wide-ranging consultations and the recommendation of the Cochairs with regard to Webcasting and the beginning of a digital repository. I must say, though, that even with these so-called changes there has been no breakthrough whatsoever that may be described as progress,” Kamboj said.

“This state of affairs is clearly in the interest of those who seek a status quo to keep this process frozen in repetitive cycles. Thirdly, and finally, President, we see this technical rollover decision as yet another wasted opportunity to instil a breath of life into a process that has shown no signs of life or growth in over four decades,” she added.

Referring to the roll-over decision, Kamboj said that as the only formal General Assembly outcome that emerges from this process each year, it must also evolve and reflect the progress achieved during Member States’ deliberations during the year.

She asserted that as a responsible and constructive member of the United Nations, India will continue to engage in this process alongside the reform-minded partners and persist with the efforts to move from repetitive speeches to text-based negotiations.

“However, for those of us who truly wish to fulfil our leader’s commitments towards an early and comprehensive reform of the United Nations Security Council. Looking beyond the IGN looks increasingly to us as the only viable pathway to a future UN security council that would better reflect the world of today,” she added.

Meanwhile, in his remarks, Csaba Korosi, President of the 77th session of the General Assembly, noted that for the first time in the history of these negotiations, the first segments of the IGN meetings are now webcast and a dedicated website on Security Council reform has been established as a repository for the IGN process. (ANI)

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Afghanistan In UNSC meet

Afghanistan Discussed In UNSC Meet

The UN special envoy for Afghanistan Roza Otunbayeva has said that the “April 5 restrictions against the Afghan women working for the United Nations places a question mark over our activities across the country,” TOLO News reported.

TOLO News is an Afghan news channel broadcasting from Kabul.
She said the Taliban gave no explanation to the UN for the ban.”We have been given no explanation by the de facto authorities for this ban and assurances that it will be lifted.”

Otunbayeva while speaking at the UN Security Council’s Meeting on the situation in Afghanistan, said that the UN does not want to put the lives of its female staff at risk and therefore asked them to not report to the office and also asked the male staff to stay home to respect non-discrimination.

Otunbayeva said that according to the initial media reports, cultivation of opium has significantly decreased and at the same time the opium economy has helped sustain parts of the rural economy in Afghanistan, and she urged donors to consider “allocating funding to alternative livelihood programs that address the specific needs of farmers” affected by the ban on poppy cultivation, as per TOLO News.

Lana Nusseibeh, Permanent Representative of the United Arab Emirates to the United Nations, while speaking at the same meeting, said: “We must continue to insist on the inclusion of Afghan women and girls in Afghan society and this starts with education. We must see progress on the provision of education at all levels and up to the internationally expected standards and benchmarks. This is non-negotiable.”

She also expressed concerns about the requiring of a hand-over of educational programs, saying that this will result in subsequent donor funding withdrawal. This will be a “tragedy” not only for women and girls but the entire country, she said.

“We must safeguard women and girls’ access to the internet across the country as it is the only space where they currently move freely and today it is providing life-changing support to the education of girls in the country,” Nusseibeh said, as per TOLO News.

Zhang Jun, Permanent Representative of the People’s Republic of China to the United Nations, called for the removal of travel bans on the Islamic Emirate’s members.

He said: “To promote dialogue and engagement, it’s necessary for the Security Council Sanctions Committee to make a package of exemption arrangements for the international travel of the relevant person of the Afghan interim government.”

Meanwhile, the US deputy ambassador to the UN said that the US will also carefully “watch the Taliban’s action on the commitments they have stated they will uphold.” (ANI)

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Jaishankar At UN counter-Terror Meet

Threat Of Terrorism Is Growing…Jaishankar At UN counter-Terror Meet

External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar on Saturday highlighted the global threat of terrorism is growing and expanding, particularly in Asia and Africa, despite the UN Security Council’s (UNSC) best efforts to combat the “gravest threat to humanity”.

Addressing the UNSC’s special meeting of the Counter-Terrorism Committee in the national capital, Jaishankar said, “Terrorism remains the gravest threat to humanity. The UN Security Council in the past two decades has evolved an important architecture built, primarily around the counter-terrorism sanctions regime to combat this menace. This has been very effective in putting the countries on notice that had turned terrorism into a state-funded enterprise.”
“Despite this, the threat of terrorism is only growing and expanding, particularly in Asia and Africa, as successive reports of 1267 sanctions committee monitoring reports have highlighted,” he added.

India is hosting the two-day anti-terrorism meeting of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). The ongoing meeting in Delhi is being held under India’s chair of the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC).

Jaishnkar told CTC members that their presence in Delhi at the special meeting demonstrates the importance that the UNSC member states and a wide range of stakeholders, place on this critical and emerging facet of terrorism.

“That the council is holding this special meeting of its counter-terrorism meetings in India, is also a product of the fact that counterterrorism has become one of the top priorities during our ongoing tenure in the security council,” he added.

Highlighting the flip sides of emerging technologies, Jaishnakar said technologies like virtual private networks, encrypted message services, and blockchains, have also thrown up new challenges for governments and regulatory bodies.

“The technologies have also thrown up new challenges for governments and regulatory bodies due to their potential vulnerability for their misuse by non-state actors, given the very nature of some of these technologies and the nascent regulatory environment,” the minister said.

“In recent years, terrorist groups, ideological fellow travelers particularly in open and liberal societies, and lone wolf attackers have enhanced their capabilities by gaining access to tech. They use tech, money, and ethos of open societies to attack freedom, tolerance, and progress,” he added.

Furthermore, Jaishankar said internet and social media platforms have turned into potent instruments in the toolkit of terrorists and militant groups for spreading propaganda, radicalization, and conspiracy theories aimed at destabilizing societies.

“Another add-on to the existing worries for governments around the world is the use of unmanned aerial systems by terrorist groups and organized criminal networks,” he added.

Lastly, Jaishankar announced that India will be making a voluntary contribution of half a million dollars to the UN Trust Fund for Counter Terrorism this year to augment the efforts of UNOCT in providing capacity-building support to member states in preventing& countering the threat of terrorism. (ANI)

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UNSC Anti-Terror Meet In India To Focus On Threat From Tech Misuse

A meeting of the UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee will be held in Mumbai and Delhi on October 28 and 29 and the overarching theme is ‘Countering the use of new and emerging technologies for terrorist purposes.

Addressing a joint media briefing here, Ruchira Kamboj, India’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations who is also Chair of the Counter-Terrorism Committee, said that terrorism remains one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and misuse of emerging technologies was an issue of increasing concern.
She said over the past two decades, member states have made tangible progress in countering terrorism and violent extremism conducive to terrorism yet terrorist threat persists and “despite our best efforts has evolved”

“Terrorism remains one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. With the growing prevalence of technology and rapid rise in digitization, addressing the use of new and emerging technologies for terrorist purposes has become an issue of increasing concern,” she said.

“Mindful of addressing this issue whilst also recognizing the potential of technologies to increase the effectiveness of counterterrorism efforts, Committee has come together in India to hold its special meeting countering the use of new and emerging technologies for terrorist purposes.

She said the focus will be on the increasing threat of use for terrorist purposes of three significant technologies – the internet, including social media, new payment technologies, and fundraising methods, and unmanned aerial systems including drones.

Sanjay Verma, Secretary (West), Ministry of External Affairs said the meeting will begin with a tribute to victims of terrorism.

“UNSC Counter-Terrorism Committee will be hosted in Mumbai and Delhi on October 28 and 29 respectively. The overarching theme would be ‘Countering the use of new and emerging technologies for terrorist purposes. It will begin with a tribute to victims of terrorism,” he said.

David Scharia, Head of Branch, UN The Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate also addressed the press conference.

India is currently the Chair of the Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee. (ANI)

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Jaishankar about China LAC

Jaishankar Reiterates India’s Interest In Joining UNSC As Permanent Member

Reiterating that a permanent seat, as well as reforms of the UN Security Council, remains India’s main priority, External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar Thursday asserted that India voices the interest and aspirations of a broad set of countries and added that the contemporary global issues cannot be solved by few countries only.

While addressing Auckland community business Jaishankar said, “There is a widespread acceptance that the problems of today cannot be solved by one, two, or even five of the countries in the United Nations Security Council. When we look at the reforms at the United Nations Security Council, we have an interest in becoming a permanent member of the security council.”
Currently, United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five or P5, are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States and India have been reiterating its bid for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council.

Over the multilateral Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) grouping, External Affairs Minister Jaishankar reiterated that not joining RCEP was the “right decision.”

During Jaishankar’s address to Auckland Community business, he noted, “When it came to the RCEP, we took a decision in 2019 not to proceed in joining the RCEP. We weigh the pros and cons. We did an evaluation and many of the critical issues were not addressed in the final outcome.”

He continued saying, “India went back to the other 15 countries and shared some of its anxieties with them but they collectively took the view that they had gone as far as they could. So we decided that it was not in our interest.”

India joined the 15-nation ‘Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations in 2012. In 2019, 15 nations, including China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand among others, signed the free trade agreement. However, India walked out of the negotiations, citing national interests.

He also emphasized that climate change also remains one of the top issues in today’s time.

Pointing to the discriminatory approaches adopted in the world in responding to the COVID pandemic, Jaishankar said that the pandemic has revealed to us “how iniquitous and how selfish this world is.”

“I am not taking a moral position. There were several discriminatory policies. If you go to South Africa there is a strong sense of anger and how they were treated during COVID,” Jaishankar added.

Moreover, Jaishankar said Thursday that India is one of the biggest manufacturers of vaccines, and even while vaccinating Indians, the country has helped others.

Addressing the Auckland community business here, Jaishankar said, “During Covid, we were one of the biggest manufacturers of vaccines. We still are. And even while we were vaccinating our own people we took a very conscious decision to help others and we prioritized countries that don’t have access to the free vaccines.”

Jaishankar also said that the entire world is suffering from the Russia-Ukraine war and mentioned the Taliban takeover in Afghanistan as also a big issue.

Responding to a question about the existence of a binary view in the world and India’s position in that, Jaishankar believed that the binary view is “outdated” and said, “One of the changes we have seen in the last few years is the US itself much more open to working with countries outside the traditional alliance or treaty or relationship.”

“So, you have mechanisms like the court, which involves some traditional alliance for the US but also a country like India, which has historically stayed away from alliances and treaties,” he added.

“You know my sense of why we should really pit the binary framework to rest if you look at the distribution of power which are the major economies of the world. Economies large enough to have an impact on global decision-making,” he added.

He also said that in the 1970s and 80s the decisions were mainly taken by G7 countries but with time the decisions’ centrality shifted to G20.

Jaishankar said that India is the fifth-largest economy in nominal terms and is expected to become third largest by the end of the decade.

The External Affairs Minister recalled that India was requested to press the Russians on the issue regarding the safety of the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant when the countries increased their fighting near the nuclear facility.

Jaishankar said, “When I was in the United Nations, the big concern at that time was the safety of the Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant because there was some fighting going on very proximate to it.”

“There was a request to us to press the Russians on that issue which we did. There have been other concerns at various points in time, either different countries have raised with us or the UN has raised with us. I think at this time whatever we can do, we will be willing to do,” the EAM added.

Earlier, Jaishankar held talks with his New Zealand counterpart Nanaia Mahuta and took up visa issues being faced by Indian students due to Covid-19 measures imposed by the country.

In Auckland, EAM will participate in an event on October 6 along with Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern to felicitate members of the Indian community in New Zealand for their exceptional achievements and contributions.

After wrapping up his New Zealand visit, the EAM will be visiting Canberra and Sydney. (ANI)

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Putin Provoke Colour Revolution

West Ready To Provoke Colour Revolution In Any Country: Putin

Accusing the West of provoking colour revolution in any country for geopolitical gains, Russian President Vladimir Putin on Friday said that the West has “plundered” countries like India in contradiction to the values of “truth, freedom and justice.”

“The West … began its colonial policy back in the Middle Ages, and then followed the slave trade, the genocide of Indian tribes in America, the plunder of India, of Africa, the wars of England and France against China … What they did was hooking entire nations on drugs, deliberately exterminate entire ethnic groups,” said Putin in the St George’s Hall at a Kremlin ceremony where he declared the annexation of four regions – Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhia.
“For the sake of land and resources, they hunted people like animals. This is contrary to the very nature of man, truth, freedom and justice,” he added as he condemned West for stirring up new conflicts.

Putin said that the West stands ready to provoke revolution in any country. “Following their goals, our geopolitical opponents – our opponents as we called them until quite recently – are prepared to put anyone, any country, in the line of fire; to turn it into the epicenter of a crisis; to provoke a “color revolution” and unleash a bloodbath.”

“We have seen all this on more than one occasion. We also know that the West works on scenarios to stir up new conflicts in the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) area. But we have enough of them as it is. You need but look at what’s happening now between Russia and Ukraine, what’s happening on the borders of some other CIS countries.”

In an all-out attack on the West, Putin in the ceremony formally announced the annexation of four regions – Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhia and claimed that “this is the will of millions of people.”

He also attacked the West as ‘satanic’ and hailed ‘traditional’ Russian values.

“Do we really want in our schools, from the elementary grades, that children were imposed perversions that lead to degradation and extinction? That they were taught that besides a man and a woman there were some other genders and were offered sex-change operations? Do we really want this for our country, for our children? All this is unacceptable for us, we have our own, different future,” he said as he slammed western values.

“There are four new regions of Russia,” Putin said in a lengthy speech declaring the annexation of Ukrainian territories in the St George’s Hall at a Kremlin ceremony. The speech was filled with highly critical rhetoric about Ukraine and its Western allies, reported Al Jazeera.

Putin said the residents in the four annexed regions will now be Russia’s “citizens forever”.

While denying seeking revival of the Soviet Union by the said annexation, Putin accused Western states – which have imposed sweeping sanctions on Moscow over its invasion of Ukraine.

Moreover, in a strong statement, Putin also added that Russia would now defend its new territory “with all the means at its disposal.”

Defending its decision to go ahead with the referendum and announce the annexation of the region, the Russian President argued it was the “integral right” of people in Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhia to join Russia, reported Al Jazeera.

Speaking further, Putin claimed that the people in eastern Ukraine made up of Donetsk and Luhansk – had been “victims of inhumane terrorist attacks conducted by the Kyiv regime”.

He also called the result of the referendum “the will of millions of people.”

In a major move by Russia, President Vladimir Putin had signed a decree recognizing the so-called “independence” of the Ukrainian regions Zaporizhzhia and Kherson.

Moreover, the UN Security Council is set to vote Friday on a resolution that would seek to condemn Russia for its referenda in four regions under Russian control but claimed by Ukraine, media reports said.

The US-sponsored resolution would call on all countries not to recognise the change in the status of the four regions, CNN reported. The resolution, which is also backed by Albania, would reaffirm the UN commitment to Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said any annexation of a state’s territory by another state resulting from a “threat or use of force” is a violation of the UN charter and international law. Moreover, US has slapped new sanctions on Russia after Moscow declared independence of the seized Ukrainian territories and separatist regions. (ANI)

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UN Security Council members

Russia’s Lavrov Backs India For Permanent Member In UN Security Council

Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov backed India for becoming a permanent member of the UN Security Council.

While addressing the 77th United Nations General Assembly, Lavrov said, “We see prospective of making Security Council more democratic via representation of countries from Africa, Asia & Latin America. India and Brazil, in particular, are key international actors and should be counted for permanent membership in the council.”
While addressing the Assembly, Lavrov accused Western countries of “throwing a fit” over the referendum that is being conducted in Russian-controlled areas of Ukraine on becoming a part of their federation.

The Russian Foreign Minister said the crises surrounding the war were growing, and the international situation was rapidly deteriorating, but instead of having an honest dialogue and searching for a compromise, the West was “undermining confidence in international institutions” and encouraging negative tendencies within the United Nations as well, according to UN News.

He said the United States was trying to turn the whole world into its “backyard”, and together with its partners, punishing dissenters from its world view, through what he called “illegal unilateral sanctions” which violate the UN Charter, and hurt poor citizens in poorer countries, targeting their medicines, vaccines and food imports.

Earlier, India with 31 other countries in a joint statement on reforms stated that an expansion of the Security Council in both permanent and non-permanent categories, as well as reform in its working methods, is indispensable to making this body more representative, legitimate and effective, delegations reiterated.

The signatories of the joint statement stated that they reaffirm that adapting the United Nations to contemporary world realities necessarily requires urgent and comprehensive reform of the Security Council, the principal organ for international peace and security.

According to the statement, the heads of delegations were convinced of the need to restore faith in effective multilateralism, “we stand united, as a group of pro-reform like-minded States, determined to work towards a more inclusive, responsive and participatory international governance architecture,” the statement reads.

“We further recognize that lack of progress in Security Council reform has serious implications, not only for the continued relevance of global governance institutions but also for global peace and security and delivering on the purposes, principles and promises of the United Nations Charter,” it added.

The head of delegations recognised that a reformed Security Council must better reflect the contemporary United Nations membership, including through enhanced representation of Small Island Developing States (SIDS), which comprise approximately 20 per cent of the United Nations’ membership. (ANI)a

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India And UN, The Coveted Prize

Foremost in the speeches of Indian leadership and diplomats as India occupies the chair of the UN Security Council for a month as non-permanent member will be demands to convert its status to a permanent veto holding power in future. It will be Modi’s crowning glory if he achieves it in his term. India has been campaigning since 1990s for UN super five to become super five plus in the Security Council

India has made its case for a seat as permanent member of UN on the strength of being a regional superpower, a world economic power, the ‘biggest’ democracy, second highest number of citizens (16% of world population), long civilization, tolerance, diversity, compliance with UN treaties, commitment to multilateralism, newborn interest on climate change and growing influence in the world. By any one’s reckoning it is a deserving claim if the only long due change in UN was expansion.

That the United Nations needs to change is obvious. It is neither representative nor does it deliver what it set out to do. It was formed by western countries after the Second World War to ‘save succeeding generations from the scourge of war’. The institution is divested to prevent wars between countries. Power and War have both overtaken the era of nation State monopoly. The UN is out of depth in the new world of Transnational Corporations (Amazon, Facebook, Shell etc), Global Wars (Al Qaeda, ISIS) and internal conflicts.

Launched officially on 24th October 1945, the UN institutional structure was developed to maintain western hegemony and award the victors of the Second World War with permanent control. The USA, United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union and China gave themselves veto power in the Security Council, the organ of UN that essentially lords over everything United Nations. Africa, Middle East and South Asia were completely ignored so was the Latin world such as South America.

ALSO READ: The Future Of America

The rest of the world has the General Assembly which can decide by simple or two third majority on a number of matters including punitive changes to UN. But altering the Security Council needs the veto holding members to finally say yea or nay. That is where India’s main hurdle lies.

The pro-West Republic of China, now exiled to the island of Taiwan, had the veto. But it was overthrown by Communists in 1949 making mainland China the People’s Republic of China. Within a short time and even before it became a world power, China successfully moved the rest of the world against American wishes, to replace Taipei (Taiwan) at the top table in 1971.

The 1970’s was a decade of opportunity for India to have pushed for expansion of Security Council. But Mrs Gandhi had already waged a war on Pakistan in 1971 making it difficult for Islamic world to support it then. She then busied herself becoming a dictator in India in 1976 losing the trust of western powers. Moreover India was too close to the Soviet despite pretending to be ‘non Aligned.

In the 1980s and 90s India had waged war on Sikhs and Sri Lanka with disastrous outcome. It lost two Prime Ministers. It didn’t quite give the impression of a responsible country that could hold the peace within India let alone save the planet from scourge of future war.

By the time India dusted itself, gained the trust of both the west and Russia, China became a superpower and now stands in its way saying ‘mei men er’ (no way).

Furthermore India’s game plan is somewhat unimaginative. India ticks all the boxes that make it a ‘most favourable’ salesperson for western ideological hegemony in upholding status quo world order. The West and even Russia (at least verbally) would like to see it in an expanded UN Security Council. China however is subtly seeking to overhaul the current fundamental western liberal foundations of the United Nations to one based on a pluralistic political thought.

ALSO READ: India-China Faceoff – De-escalation Or Status Quo Ante?

Similar currents are underway in other parts of the world. In Sub Saharan Africa there is a growing search for an indigenous civilizational philosophy that is distinct from influences of Islam or Christianity.

The Islamic world is still going through a painful period of evolving a sustainable political system that is representative of the people but distinct from western secularism. Iran has shown that there is a viable Islamic democratic polity possible.

India on the other hand has locked itself with the west. Simply reassigning secular Westphalian ethno-nationalism to a mythic non-existent Hindu ethnicity does not make a civilisation distinct.

India’s lack of constructive originality is evident in its historic failure to lead the post-colonial world by example out of the havoc colonialism created with ill thought out territorial boundaries and disregarding of historic national communities.

The post-colonial world is riddled with territorial disputes. India is at the front with territorial conflicts with Pakistan and disputes with its other neighbours including China.

Colonial boundaries fragmented communities. ‘Peoples’ like the Somalis and Masai were split by arbitrary map lines drawn during colonialism. Others were forcibly grafted onto States without consultation. The Sikhs, Tamils, Kashmiris and Nagas among many feel their nationalism has been suppressed by post-colonial States in which they find themselves.

The Europeans can and cannot be blamed for this. They came as exploitative conquerors and colonialists not as ethical saviours or messiahs. It needed a mature and creative leadership from one of the post-colonial States to propose a resettlement of boundaries through dialogue and address hopes of historic nations within with an original political system. That would have been a model for other post-colonial States to have followed.

Instead India acted as was predicted by some British politicians such as Churchill. Instead of drawing wisdom from its civilization, it adopted the Westphalian nation state model, obsessed with every inch of territory given to it by the British and forcing every minority indigenous historic nation within to forego its aspirations and accept the majority vision of a supra nation.

In contrast, the five permanent members of the Security Council all have something original to offer. Britain gave the world the parliamentary democratic system. The USA gave separation of Church and State along with rule of law. France gave the world human rights theory.

Russia (Soviet Union) offered a communist alternative to western liberal democracy. China brings a completely different civilization now increasingly being constructed around its current political interpretation of Confucian thought.

It is not clear what India would bring to the table. With minor variations, India has competitors in Brazil, Germany, Japan and a few others. If it is to stake its claim as a regional economic power then, North Africa and Sub Saharan Africa, Middle East and South America are also contenders. The UN would need 10 permanent members if not more.

However expanding the UN isn’t going to make the world any more peaceful, resolve the issues that are now out of UN’s depth or lead to a future free from scourge of war. India could have won immense respect and world leadership had it led the post-colonial period with solutions to the inevitable problems of territorial tensions and internal disputes inherited from European rule.

India’s choices are limited. It can appease China by sacrificing land to China and Pakistan. India can join up with the west to push China into submission and accept Indian seat at UN. Or it can bring some originality to world peace.

But as a risk averse and conservative institution, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) is not known for imaginative leaps in international theory. India has been competing for recognition in yester world of 1970s. The future of UN is being changed by China, for better or for worse slowly eroding hegemony of western political paradigm. The UN will metamorphose but not into what MEA has prepared for.